Kabul Polytechnic University http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu <p><strong>ABOUT US</strong></p> <p>KPU International Journal of Engineering and Technology (KPU-iJET) with ISSN: 2790-0819 (Online) and ISSN:2790-0800 (Print) is an open access peer-reviewed international forum for scientist and engineers involved in research to publish high quality and refereed papers. Papers for publication are selected through peer review to ensure originality, relevance, and readability. The journal ensures a wide indexing policy to make published papers highly visible to the scientific community.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> en-US ijet@kpu.edu.af (Niazi) ghafoor.etemad@kpu.edu.af (Abdul Ghafoor Etemad) Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Compositions of Afghani Ghori and Various Pakistani Cement Brands Used in Afghanistan http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/16 <p>Abstract:<br>Cement is widely used in construction works. In Afghanistan, despite Ghori Portland <br>cement several other Pakistani imported cement brands are used in a vast extent. Therefore, it <br>is required that the cement properties shall meet the standard properties established by the <br>codes. In this study, the Ghori-1 and imported cement brands are compared in terms of <br>chemical constituents and compounds. The chemical composition of Ghori cement was <br>analyzed by conducting XRF/XRD tests and the chemical composition of imported cements <br>were collected from the published research articles. The C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF compound <br>composition was calculated through the chemical analysis of cement using Bogue's equation. <br>It was found that in Ghori cement, the Al2O3 and SO3 contents exceed the specified limits. The <br>higher amount of SO3 leads to expansion of sulfates in cement. Moreover, based on the <br>comparison of four main compounds (C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF), it was found that the Ghori1 cement exhibit lower amount of C3S and higher amount of C2S which produces the least <br>strength compared to the other cement brands. Some deviations were found in chemical <br>composition of Ghori cement and do not meet the standard values established by the codes <br>which are due to low quality control during the cement production process. Based on the <br>comparison of different brands considering the chemical compositions, the Cherat and <br>Bestway cements met the recommended values given by the standards. The Ghori cement need <br>further quality control during the production process to ensure the codes specified quality.</p> INAMULLAH INAM, MOHAMMAD KHALID NASIRY, MOHAMMAD NASIR WAHDAT Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/16 Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 New Towns and Probing the Identity: Features and Strengthening Approaches http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/19 <p>Abstract:<br>Humans are the only being who cares about identity, they are always looking for a means by <br>which to explain themselves. The new towns are also a man-made product, an evolving product <br>that changes its traits and identity in the path of evolution, this identity of the new towns has <br>various effects on the collective life of human beings or citizens.<br>In the construction of new towns propriety is to pay attention to mega structures, housing, and <br>settlement, then attention is paid to public and open spaces that are effective in creating a sense <br>of belonging and identity. Such a process reduces the sense of belonging, ownership, and <br>identity of new towns. <br>This article expresses the importance of identity in the new towns and examines the features <br>that form identity and strengthen identity in new towns using library research methods. <br>Moreover, aims to solve the problems of anonymity and suggests solutions to strengthen the <br>identity of urban spaces. Similarly, answers to the questions of what is the identity of the towns? <br>What are the features that create the identity in new towns? and how can the identity of the <br>palace or town be strengthened?</p> <p>,, ,&nbsp;</p> RAZ MOHAMMAD AZIZI, AHMAD JAWAD NIAZI , DAWOD SHAH FAROOQ, SALEH MOHAMMAD YARI Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/19 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Main Parameters of Composition for Artistic and Harmonic Solution in Architectural Design of Partial Forms http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/22 <p>Abstract: <br>Architectural design is one of the most comprehensive and composite latitude, in the present <br>age architects are able to design and adapt various objects and have different features to suit <br>different needs.; adequate selection of form, texture appearance and selection of color for <br>architectural objects is one of the most essentials part of client’s expectations in architectural <br>projects, architects are responsible for different issues in designing process of buildings and <br>non-building structures, one of them could be balanced solution and creation of attractive <br>and harmonic adjustment of spaces, forms and elements in the interior or exterior of the <br>objects, the objective of this study is to describe and introduce the artistic aspect of <br>architectural design which could address many issues related to composition of architectural <br>design, arising from the introducing of composition, definition of composition criteria and its <br>general principles, consequently, architectural composition has the potential role as an<br>assistive tool in development of conceptual and purposeful design process during the solution <br>of other architectural problems. This research will help the architects and designers to <br>improve their artificial ideas how to compose and orient architectural forms and create <br>artificial facades.</p> FAZALRAHMAN IKHLAS, HASIBULLAH KHAN Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/22 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Food Safety Considering Food Misuse and Low-Quality Products: Study of the Quality of Tomato Paste Products Available in the Kabul Market http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/25 <p>Abstract<br>Food and nutrition insecurity in Afghanistan is one of the key crises that has challenged <br>the lives of many Afghans, resulting in insufficient food, limited access to food, low-quality <br>processed food products, food misuse, and food supply instability (1). The purpose of this <br>research is to assess the food safety condition to understand the value and importance of <br>food safety in the society in an effort to study food misuse by consumers and the lack of <br>quality processed products. In this study, tomato paste, which is one of the most consumed <br>products in Afghanistan and largely imported from overseas markets, has been selected. The <br>study delves deeper into investigating the factors influencing consumers’ choice of tomato <br>paste and the quality of the tomato paste products. In this study through descriptive, crosssectional method 384 individuals responsible for purchasing food items for their households <br>were selected from across the Kabul city using the convenience sampling method. the data <br>was analyzed using version 20 of the SPSS, a statistical analysis software. In ascertaining the <br>quality of tomato paste products, the purposive sampling method among tomato paste brands <br>available in the Kabul market was used. The analysis of these samples was conducted in the <br>Middle East Testing Services (METS) L.L.C. laboratory. The results of the study of tomato <br>paste quality show that the majority of products available in the country markets are of low <br>quality and are contrary to the accepted and expected standards. This issue leads to the loss <br>of one of the most important pillars of food safety and security in the country.</p> WARIS SHIRZAI, NOORUDDIN AMIN, SHAHIRRA OMAR, ABDULRAZIQ REZAYEE, JAMSHID NOORI Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/25 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Mineralogical And Geochemical Properties of Afghan And Surrounding Countries Marbles And Granites: Challenges And Opportunities http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/17 <p>Abstract<br>Twenty-two different granite and marble sample are currently being examined in labs. <br>Stones are cut into thin section and observed under a polarizing microscope (Leica DM750P) <br>with XRF (X-ray Fluorescence). Analysis and evaluation of the samples are broken down into <br>percentages of silicon oxide, sodium, and potassium in the granites with SiO2 at (52-65 wt.%), <br>Na2O+K2O at (4.7-12.1wt.%) and mineral composition and percentage of rock-forming <br>materials are broken down into potassium feldspar minerals at (32-40 wt.%), plagioclase at <br>(25-35 wt.%), quartz at (5-10 wt.%), and accessory minerals at &lt;1% with fluidal structures <br>being determined. The percentage ratio of oxides and minerals indicates that these rocks, <br>mainly correspond with grano-diorites and intermediate igneous rocks, such as diorites and <br>andesite. <br>Marbles, like granites, were also analyzed and interpreted by the above two methods, due <br>to presence of fossils and large amounts of impurities like Mud, Mica, Iron oxide, and silicates, <br>these marbles are categorized into carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin and law quality <br>marble which were formed in the lower degree of metamorphism.<br>Individual rocks have different erosion resistances because of dissimilar constituent <br>minerals, formation conditions, and origin. Those with less resistant minerals, less water <br>absorption, and porosity are more likely to be negatively influenced. Granites whit a higher <br>amount of quartz, for example, have a higher degree of hardness, greater strength and <br>durability than intermediate igneous rock, so they are more resistant to erosion</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MOHAMMAD ARIF NERO, EKRAMUDDIN TAMIM, MOHAMMAD AZIZ AMINI Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/17 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting the Cost of Maintenance of Residential Buildings in Afghanistan http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/20 <p>Abstract<br>The residential building (apartments) often needs to be repaired and maintained after a <br>certain period to be fully operational. And this care involves a lot of money. Past research <br>has shown that the maintenance costs repairs are relatively high due to poor maintenance <br>performance. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the factors that increase <br>these costs. In this research, a quantitative method is used to obtain accurate information. <br>First of all, critical factors are identified using a review of past literature, then 60 <br>questionnaires were distributed to construction managers, supervisors, municipal engineers, <br>and maintenance managers. questionnaires have been filled and collected using Likert scale <br>system to evaluate and classify the factors. The findings show that the most important factors <br>that have more influence on housing maintenance cost were found which consist of low <br>quality of material, building age, lack of tenancy care, and building function, which causes an <br>increment in maintenance cost in housing. In the end, some measures are proposed to <br>minimize the housing maintenance cost like participation of tenants and residents in <br>maintenance and using good construction material.</p> MOHAMMAD NAJIM WAHEDY, ABDUL TAWAB ALIM Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/20 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mining Management in Afghanistan: Opportunities, Challenges, Constraints and Strategies for Correct Use of the Mineral Resources of the Country http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/23 <p>Abstract<br>Despite the superiority of widespread mineral resources located throughout Afghanistan, <br>minimal large-scale development of these resources has taken place during the 20th and 21st<br>centuries. The main reason has been a number of important constraints and Challenges that <br>have not yet been removed. <br>Considering that mines as national property belong to all citizens of the country and every <br>person has equal rights in it. Mines play an important role in the self-sufficiency and <br>economic development of countries. Therefore, researching and examining the challenges and <br>problems that the country's mines face is of special importance and urgency and needs to be <br>researched. In writing this article, an analytical-descriptive method has been used, which is <br>supplemented by authoritative books on mining management, reports of the Ministries of <br>Mines and Petroleum, tax, economy and media on the state of the country's mines, news, <br>magazines and reviews of articles related to this topic from Nationally and internationally <br>valid journals. As a result of major challenges and constraints facing the country's mines such <br>as weakness and lack of expertise in various management sectors including planning, <br>leadership, organization and supervision at the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum and related <br>mining institutions, there was still no soft infrastructure (security, rule of law, corruption, <br>environmental issues, information and human capital) and the lack of infrastructure <br>(electricity, transport, land and water) are among the most important issues that have <br>hindered the growth of mining processes such as: exploration, development and proper <br>exploitation of mines and substandard and illegal extraction. Taking into account the <br>mentioned challenges, using solutions such as: creating the necessary infrastructure and <br>superstructure in the mining sector and observing the long-term goals of sustainable <br>development for the proper exploitation of the country's mines has been proposed</p> MOHAMMAD ARIF NERO, ABDUL BAQI RAHMANI Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/23 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Solar Energy in Reducing Cost of Residential Users http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/26 <p>Abstract:<br>The use of natural fossil resources in the world on one hand has caused damages to <br>animals and environment; on other hand fossil resources are running out, increasing <br>population and consequently increasing of human demands for energy resources, caused <br>invention of new tools and methods to use renewable cheap and harmless resources like solar <br>energy instead of fossil natural resources. Solar energy is used in various sectors such as <br>industry, agriculture and home affairs, it is said that about 40% of the world's energy is spent <br>on housing. Although energy is one of the resources to meet human needs and necessities, the <br>cost of supply and use of it, is a large consumption item for residential users. The purpose of <br>this study is to stabilize the cost of use, and usage of users from public energy center <br>(Electricity) and solar energy (Solar Panels) in residential units, this research has been <br>compiled descriptively and for its analysis, has been used of valid domestic and foreign <br>scientific sources and according to its requirements, different methods have been analyzed. <br>The results shows the fact that use From the energy system of solar panels to supply energy <br>sources in residential units, according to the weather conditions and useful life of solar <br>energy production devices, the cost of energy supply has been reduced by about 76%, not <br>only its efficiency is safe but also it is near to frugality.</p> ABDUL WALI HAZHEER Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/26 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Adsorption Performance In The Removal of Waste Water Contaminants By Nanostructures From ElectroOxidation of Different Metals http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/18 <p>Abstract<br>Water pollution with various pollutants, including heavy metals, is a serious <br>environmental challenge for the world. Most of the methods available for removing <br>contaminants from contaminated water generally show their effectiveness at high <br>concentrations and are not responsive to low concentrations (concentrations below 100 mg / <br>l). They are also not affordable. Therefore, it is necessary to use a method that in addition to <br>being low cost, its performance is also effective in refining heavy metals. Adsorption is a very <br>rich process with scientific and experimental background due to its many advantages. This <br>study is a review of the study and collection of information regarding the adsorption of metal <br>contaminants from contaminated water by nanoparticles produced by electro-crystallization. <br>Then, at the end, the effect of increasing the oxidation voltage and consequently the effect of <br>reducing the size of nanoparticles resulting from electro-oxidation of various metals in the <br>removal efficiency of contaminants has been investigated. According to the results of studies <br>in this field, increasing the voltage has reduced the size of nanoparticles produced, which has <br>resulted in an increase in the efficiency of adsorption of heavy metals from contaminated <br>water, which in some cases even the absorption rate has reached over 90%.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SAYED HABIBULLAH HASHEMI, PAMIR MOMAND, SAYED LAMSOON SAYEDI Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/18 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of the Buckling Restrained Brace in Steel Moment Frames in Afghanistan http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/21 <p>Abstract<br>This paper studies the seismic response behavior and seismic performance of unbraced Steel <br>Moment Frame Structure designed for seismicity of Kabul province and then it is assumed that <br>same design is subjected to the seismicity of Badakhshan province of Afghanistan by Time <br>History Analysis method. The validity of the concept of eliminating the compression buckling <br>failure mode of Buckling Restrained Brace by encasing it over its length in a steel tube filled <br>with concrete leading to similar performance under compression and tension is investigated <br>from the result of Nonlinear Dynamic Time History Response Analysis. Recent developments <br>have caused population growth concentrated in major cities of Afghanistan, building owners <br>and engineers have no option other than going for vertical building structures. As Afghanistan <br>is located in a seismically active zone, these structures are subjected to collapse or large lateral <br>displacements due to strong earthquake ground motions. Afghanistan has newly adopted <br>standards for the design of steel structures, but there is no steel building designed with a BRB <br>system yet in the country. Therefore, in this research, an unbraced steel office building is <br>designed for Kabul city by Afghan Structural Code (ASC), and also it is assumed to be <br>constructed in Badakhshan province with the highest seismic hazard in the country. Two <br>patterns of BRBs with varying core cross-section areas have been used in order to find the <br>optimum cross-section area. Dynamic Eugene value analysis and nonlinear dynamic response <br>analysis are carried out to determine the dynamic characteristics and seismic performance. <br>For response analysis, artificially simulated ground accelerations of Badakhshan and Kabul <br>provinces, which have the phases of recorded Seismic waves of (El Centro NS) are adopted to <br>the response spectrum prescribed by Afghan Structural Code. From the result of response <br>analysis, it is concluded that the response of the special moment frame structure in terms of <br>maximum story drift angle is within the code limitation in Kabul province and more than the <br>code limitation for Badakhshan province. With employing Buckling Restrained Braces in <br>Badakhshan province, the energy dissipation and damage prevention capacity of unbraced <br>frame is greatly improved and the response of the frame braced with-BRB is mostly within the <br>allowable range of the Afghan Structural Code.</p> MOHAMMAD NASER AMIN Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/21 Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Recent Developments in High Sulfur-Content Polymers http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/24 <p>Abstract: <br>Synthetic polymers are one of the most widely used materials, and there is a growing <br>demand to produce new polymers that are more environmentally friendly. Despite the fact <br>that sulfur, a petroleum by-product, is viewed in polymers' manufacture as a potential <br>replacement for carbon, it cannot form a stable polymer alone. But it responds to combining <br>sulfur polymers with organic crosslinking molecules in a process known as "inverse <br>vulcanization," involving high temperatures and extended reaction periods, so that they are <br>stable and resist decomposition. We will highlight recent advances in sulfur (S8) <br>polymerization for the production of high sulfur polymers, as well as future prospects. <br>Although homo polymerization of S8 has been known for a long period of time, this kind of <br>polymeric sulfur is chemically unstable and reverts to its original state. In this article, we <br>shall explore the history of sulfur production as well as the limitations of using sulfur as a <br>chemical reagent in the synthesis of novel materials and composites. S8 was pioneered as a <br>reaction medium and co-monomer in inverse vulcanization in order to develop chemically <br>stable and process able sulfur copolymers that were also combustible.</p> SELMA YARLIGAN UYSAL, LUTFULLAH AHMADI, ROBINA MAIHAN Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/24 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Research On Selecting The Most Suitable Extraction Method For Achin Talc-Magnesite Mine In Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/27 <p>Abstract:<br>Magnesite is a natural material that has various uses in today's industry, but in the Achin <br>Talc-magnesite mine, only Talc has been mined by underground mining method. And the <br>magnesite has remained intact. However, the magnesite veins are located near the Talc veins, <br>and their thickness is 20-70 meters, which is considered to be completely suitable to be <br>extracted by open-pit mining method.<br>Global practice data shows that currently 83% of the world's mines are extracted by the <br>open-pit mining method. And about 17% of mines are extracted by underground mining <br>methods.Independently extraction of Talc by underground mining method raises the total <br>mining cost, and it also makes the extraction of the magnesite deposit impossible or difficult <br>in the future.<br>To select appropriate method for the simultaneous extraction of Talc and magnesite, the <br>average stripping ratio was obtained by the computational method. The average stripping <br>ratio achieved is (K=2.39). Comparing it with global norms, and considering the position of <br>mineral veins, open-pit mining method is proposed for this mine. This makes it possible to <br>extract both Talc and Magnesite with a very lower cost. <br>Independently extraction of Talc by underground mining method has created underground <br>voids next to the magnesite vein. Which will cause the magnesite vein to slide into these voids <br>in the future and now It causes the price of extraction per ton of Talc to rise.</p> NAQIBULLAH TURABI, MOHAMMAD ISMAEIL SIDDIQI, NOORULLAH SHAMS, HAMIDULLAH TURABI Copyright (c) 2022 Kabul Polytechnic University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://kpu-ijet.af/kpu/index.php/kpu/article/view/27 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000